5.4.2 Business and Travel Expenses
Formerly Known As Policy Number: 36.7
The university pays directly or reimburses individuals for expenses that are necessary and appropriate to conduct University business. This policy outlines the guiding principles, reimbursement and travel policies with examples of business-related expenses at Stanford University. This policy applies to all fund types and business expenses, including travel undertaken for university business and purchases of items to be owned by Stanford. It should be used in conjunction with resources and procedural information on the Gateway to Financial Activities (Fingate) website. This policy is based on and in alignment with the expectations set forth by AGM 1.1.1: Code of Conduct, specifically with regard to employing sound business practices and exercising prudent financial management in the stewardship of University resources.
This policy is applicable to direct payments and reimbursements of:
- Business meals and entertainment expenses,
- Travel expenses (expenses incurred while traveling on University business)
- Purchases of items to be owned by Stanford (including purchases made by visitors and students)
Additional information on purchasing methods can be found in AGM 5.3: Purchasing Goods and Services.
1. Guiding Principles
a. Supporting University Travelers
In order for Stanford to be able to more effectively support its faculty, staff, postdoctoral scholars, and students when they are traveling on university-sponsored business, the university requires the use of a centralized booking program as described in the Travel Policy below. This method connects travel reservations automatically to the university’s Travel Registry, enabling Stanford to locate its employees and students in an emergency and/or provide assistance as needed.
In most cases, use of the university’s centralized booking program results in reduced travel-related costs. However, as travel pricing is dynamic, there are times when a fare or rate may not reflect the least expensive price. In these cases, the ability for the university to support its travelers supersedes the need to purchase the cheapest travel fare or rate. The university continually evaluates its relationships with travel booking partners to ensure that services are provided at reasonable cost and are generally consistent with those offered by other commercial booking sources.
In addition, at a holistic level, the university can more efficiently steward its resources through the centralized booking program by reducing the administrative burden related to payment and reimbursement processes and tools, time searching for cost comparisons, and effort tracking the needed documentation.
More information is detailed in the Travel Policy section in this administrative guide memo.
b. Stewardship of Resources
As stated in the University Code of Conduct (AGM 1.1.1), members of the Stanford University Community are expected to employ sound business practices and exercise prudent financial management in their stewardship of University resources. As such, individuals using University resources for business, travel expenses, and/or to purchase items to be owned by Stanford share the responsibility of ensuring that these resources are used appropriately, support the University mission, and comply with University policies, applicable laws and regulations, and sponsor and donor restrictions.
Specifically, expenses incurred in the course of University-related business must be reasonable and necessary.
- Reasonable means that the nature and amount of the expense does not exceed that which a prudent person would incur under the same circumstances. While these amounts may vary, a good test is whether the individual could defend the expense if it came under public scrutiny.
- A necessary expense is one that supports and furthers the University mission and its ongoing operation.
The university has established limits on maximum university reimbursement for specific types of business and travel expenses, including meals, air and ground transportation, and hotel lodging. The limits, details and associated processes for these reimbursements are available on the Fingate website. It is the responsibility of the individual incurring expenses, as well as those who assist others with incurring expenses and those involved in the preparation and approval of reimbursement requests or financial transactions, to exercise good stewardship of university funds and to adhere to the reimbursement policies. For more information on these various roles and responsibilities, see AGM 3.2.1: Responsibility for University Funds.
Travel and business expenses that do not reflect good stewardship of University resources, are found to benefit the individual at the expense of the University, and/or are deemed excessive or fraudulent will be subject to further review by the appropriate office (e.g. Office of Chief Risk Officer or School/Unit Office) as outlined in AGM 3.5.1: Financial Irregularities. Consequences of substantiated financial irregularities include denial of reimbursement, future business expense or travel restrictions and appropriate disciplinary action up to and including termination of employment or other relationships with the University.
2. Travel Policy
Stanford is committed to supporting domestic and international research, business, and educational travel that advances the university’s mission, except when circumstances pose a significant risk to health or safety. Exigent circumstances may necessitate additional restrictions or guidance with regard to travel on behalf of the university.
To ensure the safety of the Stanford community, faculty, staff, postdoctoral scholars and students must engage in thoughtful planning of their travels well in advance and fully utilize the university resources that are available to them. Before purchasing or booking travel, faculty, staff, postdoctoral scholars and students must ensure compliance with university, local, state and federal guidelines, as well as with all relevant regulations in their travel destination.
Definition of University-Sponsored Travel
University-sponsored travel is defined as when the university pays directly or reimburses individuals for travel expenses that are necessary and appropriate to conduct university business. This includes the use of any funding source for which the university has financial responsibility and accountability, including operating budgets, donor gifts, federally-sponsored grants and awards, and any other restricted or unrestricted fund. Student and postdoctoral scholar travel that is directly related to their individual course of study, or for which academic credit may be awarded, is considered university-sponsored travel, even if the travel is funded via their base financial support.
University-sponsored travel may occur within or outside of the local area. Travel is considered outside of the local area when the destination is 50 miles or more one way from the traveler’s home or Stanford’s historic campus, whichever is greater. This definition is applicable to some travel expense policies, for example, hotel lodging reimbursement, where the university will only pay for hotel lodging expenses when the trip is outside of the local area.
University-Sponsored Travel Booking Policy
Stanford utilizes a centralized travel booking program (Stanford Travel) that automatically registers travel reservations and any subsequent changes to a reservation, to the university’s Travel Registry, which is managed by Stanford’s provider of medical, personal, travel, and security assistance. Therefore, in order to enable the university to provide guidance to travelers before their trips and to locate and more effectively support travelers in the event of an emergency, faculty, staff, postdoctoral scholars and students traveling on behalf of the university must utilize the centralized travel booking program to book domestic and international air travel, unless it is specifically exempted from this booking policy. Travel for visitors, guests, Stanford Healthcare, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory employees is not included in this booking policy and should follow the policies of their respective organization.
Purchasing airfare (unless specifically listed as a type that is exempted) outside of the centralized booking program requires an advance booking method exception from Global Risk, as described on the Global Risk website. Schools and units may have additional review procedures for exceptions. This process is specific to requesting exceptions to the booking method only; exceptions to business expense policies and processes (e.g., such as for class of fare) are administered by Financial Management Services and approved first by the school or unit where applicable.
In any instance where hotel or exempted airfare reservations are booked outside of the centralized travel booking program, travelers must use the itinerary-forwarding service so that the university can provide support before and during travel. Global Risk will monitor compliance with the policy and conduct appropriate outreach and intervention as needed.
Hotel, Lodging and Rental Cars
Travelers may opt to use this program when booking hotels and rental cars for university-sponsored travel. Stanford Travel automatically sends booking updates to the registry when itineraries change, supports compliance with reimbursement policies and procedures, and offers discounts, waivers, and perks to travelers. Considering these benefits, booking through Stanford Travel remains the preferred booking option wherever possible.
When domestic or international hotels or exempted types of airfare are booked outside of the Stanford Travel booking channels, travelers, or travel arrangers must use the itinerary-forwarding service to register and then, as needed, update their trip details. See more information in the exemptions section below and on Fingate.
Split or Partially Funded Travel
When travel expenses for Stanford faculty, staff, postdoctoral scholars, or students will be shared by Stanford University and one or more external organizations, even if only a minority of the travel expenses are sponsored by Stanford, the trip is considered split.
In terms of the booking policy, split travel is considered university-sponsored travel and must be purchased through a Stanford Travel booking channel following the Business and Travel Expense Policies detailed here and on the Fingate website.
If it is not easy to separate out the costs that will be covered by the external party, the Stanford Travel Card may be used to pay for the total cost of the trip, then Stanford must be reimbursed by the traveler or travel arranger for the external party portion. See How To Return Personal Expenses Charged to a Travel Card.
Any portion of travel that Stanford pays for must follow Stanford Travel policies and guidelines.
Fully Externally-sponsored Travel
When an outside institution or entity asks Stanford faculty, staff, postdoctoral scholars, or students to travel on that organization’s behalf and provides full payment for those travel expenses, the trip is considered fully externally sponsored, also referred to as third-party travel.
Stanford University resources may not be used to book, purchase or reimburse expenses for fully externally-sponsored travel. In these instances, the use of the Stanford Travel Card and advances are prohibited, and travel arrangements may not be booked via Stanford Travel booking channels.
Exemptions to the Booking Policy
There are some circumstances where faculty, staff, postdoctoral scholars, and students are not required to book airfare through Stanford Travel booking channels, such as:
- Groups of 10 or more travelers going to the same location,
- Regional airlines that are not available to book through Stanford Travel,
- Basic Economy Fares that are not available to book through Stanford Travel,
- Airline ticket reissues or exchanges, and
- Travel purchases booked outside of the U.S. for employees of Stanford’s affiliated global subsidiaries and branches. Non-employees affiliated with activities managed through these subsidiaries and branches (for example, coaches or volunteers) are also exempted from this booking policy.
In these instances, travel arrangers must use the itinerary-forwarding service to register, and then, as needed, update their trip details. For a complete list of exempted types of travel, see Fingate.
Paying for Travel
Generally, the Stanford Travel Card (TCard) is the preferred payment method for travel costs that will not be reimbursed through the per diem method. Alternatively, personal funds may be used and a request for reimbursement can be submitted after the trip.
When a personal component of travel is added to a business trip, the university will only pay for or reimburse the costs of the business component. The charge that would have been incurred without that personal component must be documented via a comparison from a Stanford booking channel at the time of booking in order to appropriately process the reimbursement.
The Travel Card may be used to pay for trips that include a component of personal travel that may not be easily separated from the booking, but it may not be used to purchase trips that are exclusively personal. In cases where the Travel Card is used to purchase trips with a personal component, the individual is responsible for reimbursing the university for the extra cost.
For more information about paying for travel, refer to Stanford’s Gateway to Financial Activities (Fingate) website.
University funds or resources may not be used where Stanford prohibits travel. See, for instance, the Stanford International Travel Policy as it relates to undergraduate students.
Stanford University may strongly recommend against or restrict travel to or within countries where the U.S. Department of State has issued certain official Travel Advisory levels, where there is other reliable information of significant health or safety risks, and/or where exigent circumstances apply. Detailed guidance can be found in the Stanford International Travel Policy. When planning travel, faculty, staff, postdoctoral scholars, and students should first review traveler health and safety guidelines as well as information about any travel restrictions on the Office of International Affairs and Environmental Health & Safety websites.
3. Reimbursement Policy: IRS Accountable Plan and Regulations Compliance
The University reimburses individuals under the IRS Accountable Plan when the IRS regulations are met. Under this plan, the reimbursement is not taxable as income to the employee if the expense has a business connection and is also submitted in a timely manner (see sections below). In addition to expenses being reasonable and necessary, the requirements for reimbursement under the IRS Accountable Plan include the following:
a. Business Connection and Substantiation of Expense
Expenses incurred must have a business connection; that is, they must have been paid or incurred while performing Stanford business. The business connection must be adequately explained and documented in the University’s records. Documentation must include:
- The Business Purpose, which should clearly and without need for interpretation:
- Explain how the business expense is connected to the University and supports its mission; and
- Include sufficient documentation to support the business purpose and alignment to the purpose of the funds, such as agendas or travel itinerary.
- Documentation demonstrating that the amounts incurred are reasonable based on the facts and circumstances, and specific explanation when they have deviated from University guidelines.
b. Timeliness of Transaction
Expenses should be submitted immediately and no later than 60 days after being incurred (e.g., return date from trip), or a reasonable explanation must be provided for an exception to be granted. Reimbursable expenses that are submitted after 60 days will be reported as taxable income to the IRS.
c. Non-employee Travel: Students and Visitors
In addition, if the individual incurring the expense is not an employee of the university, additional requirements apply:
- An undergraduate, graduate or post-doctoral student incurring the travel expense must be certified as traveling on University business by the appropriate signatory. Review Student Travel policy on Fingate.
- Expenses incurred by foreign visitors may only be reimbursed if the visitor enters the United States on an appropriate visa (see Guide Memo 2.4.1: Visas for and Employment of Foreign Nationals).
4. Examples: Reimbursable and Non-reimbursable Business Expenses
Below are examples of reimbursable and non-reimbursable expenses. For a complete list and more information, see Business and Travel Expense Policies on Fingate.
a. Examples of Reimbursable Business Expenses
- Business-related airfare, hotel lodging, travel meals, transportation, and conference registration fees;
- Business meals at a restaurant or catered by an approved supplier, attended by those necessary to achieve a business outcome;
- Occasional employee morale activities, local retreat and team-building events.
b. Examples of Non-reimbursable Expenses
- Spousal travel expenses to accompany Stanford employees or visitors on university-sponsored business travel, unless approved in advance by the Provost;
Business class airfare for domestic travel, unless an approved and current medical exemption is on file;
First class airfare, unless business class would be allowed under policy but is not available;
Frequent traveler programs or memberships, including the purchase of or redemption of miles/points;
Gifts to individuals celebrating personal events, for example for: birthdays, baby showers, bridal showers, weddings, graduations;
Personal membership and club fees, such as airline clubs and individual Stanford Faculty Club dues;
Travel or domestic car rental insurance, unless in Hawaii or Alaska;
Parking fees, permits or transportation expenses related to employees commuting to their Primary Stanford Work Location (in alignment with AGM 2.1.20: Hybrid (Telecommuting) Work Arrangements and AGM 2.1.21: Remote Work Arrangements);
Traffic citation for either personal or university vehicles;
Interest charges for late payment of bills;
Personal items included in a purchase of items to be owned by Stanford.
- Please visit the Business and Travel Expense Policies page on Fingate for specific information on expense guidance and limits for travel and travel-related procedures.
- SLAC travelers should contact the SLAC Travel Office for more information.